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The Various Schools of Taoism

帖子发表于 : 12月 29th, 2011, 12:47 pm
Taoist Wang
Celestial Masters (天师道)
142 CE Zhang Daoling announced that Laozi (老子) had appeared to him and commanded him to rid the world of decadence and establish a new state consisting only of the ‘chosen people.’ Zhang became the first Celestial Master, and began to spread his newly-founded movement throughout the province of Sichuan. The movement was initially called the Way of the Five Pecks of Rice.

In 215, Zhang Lu submitted to Cao Cao, the ruler of the Wei Kingdom, surrendering his state in exchange for gaining state religion status for Tianshi Daoism. Zhang was given a title and land, as were several other family members and generals. His daughter was married to Cao Cao’s son, Cao Yu.

The collapse of the Wei Kingdom in 260 CE, along with the fall of Northern China to the Huns in 317, further scattered adherents to the Celestial Master. The Celestial Masters later reemerged in the 4th and 5th centuries as two distinct offshoots, the Northern and Southern Celestial Masters.

Southern Celestial Masters : After the fall of Luoyang in 311, the remnants of the court fled to Jiankang (Nanjing) and established a new state known as the Eastern Jin dynasty. Among the court members who fled were members of the Celestial Masters. The Way of the Celestial Master coalesced to form a distinct form of Celestial Master Daoism known as the Southern Celestial Masters. The Southern Celestial Masters lasted as a distinct movement into the fifth century.

Northern Celestial Masters: Kou Qianzhi, who was raised in a Celestial Master family, received two visions of Laozi in 415 and in 423. In 424, he brought the work that resulted from these visions to the court of the Northern Wei dynasty. The rulers put his works into practice, and Kou became the Celestial Master of the Daoist theocracy of the Northern Wei. After Kou died in 448, the prime minister, Cui Hao, became power hungry and began to insult the Wei rulers. Unhappy with his insubordination, the rulers had Cui executed in 450, and ended the Daoist theocracy.

Re: The Various Schools of Taoism

帖子发表于 : 12月 29th, 2011, 12:47 pm
Taoist Wang
Shanqing School of Daoism (上清) Lady Wei Huacun, an aristocrat from the Jin dynasty and a Celestial Master practitioner, was the first leader of the Shangqing School. Yang Xi 楊羲 (330-386) supposedly had revelations and transcribed texts from a group of immortals and spirits that appeared to him. Tao Hongjing, advisor to the princes of Qi, commented upon, and compiled the Shangqing texts, and developed a well-structured system consisting of a pantheon and new ways to reach immortality that depended upon meditation. More interested in Daoism and Buddhism than in public administration, in 492 he received authorization to leave the court. He moved to Maoshan, which had by now become the center of the school. There, with the help of the Emperor Wudi of the Liang dynasty, he built the temple of Huayang, the first Shangqing temple. After his death, the school continued to prosper, and recruited many people from the aristocracy. From its beginning near Nanjing, the school expanded to the north after laws passed in 504 and 517 forced several masters of the school to go into exile.

Ge Gong and his literary contributions to DaoismGe Hong (葛洪, 283–343 was a minor southern official during the Jin Dynasty (263-420) of China, best known for his interest in Daoism, alchemy, and techniques of longevity. Some of his works include Shenxian zhuan (Traditions of Divine Transcendents) and the Baopuzi (抱朴子, The Master Who Embraces Simplicity)

Lingbao School of Daoism (灵宝)The Lingbao School was an important Daoist school that emerged in China in between the Jin Dynasty and the Liu Song Dynasty in the early fifth century CE. It lasted for about two hundred years until it was absorbed into the Shangqing School during the Tang Dynasty. The Lingbao School is a synthesis of religious ideas based on Shangqing texts, the rituals of the Celestial Masters, and Buddhist practices. The most important scripture in the Lingbao School is known as the Five Talismans (Wufujing), which was compiled by Ge Chaofu and based on Ge Hong's earlier alchemical works.

Re: The Various Schools of Taoism

帖子发表于 : 12月 29th, 2011, 12:48 pm
Taoist Wang
Zhengyi Dao (正一道)
By the beginning of the Tang Dynasty in 618, the term 'Celestial Master' had lost the potency it had in earlier movements such as the Five Pecks of Rice, and any prominent Daoist could be accorded the title. Emperor Xuanzong (712-756), canonized the first Celestial Master Zhang Daoling during his reign. This did not benefit the original territory of his followers in Sichuan, but rather benefited a temple in the Jiangnan area of Jiangxi province. This temple, located at Longhu Shan, claimed to be the spot where Zhang Daoling had obtained the Dao, and where his descendants still lived. Recognized by the emperor as the legitimate descendants of Zhang Daoling, these new Celestial Masters established a new patriarchy at their base of Longhu Shan (龙虎山, Dragon and Tiger Mountain).

The importance of the Zhengyi school grew during the Song Dynasty, with the Celestial masters frequently receiving imperial appointments. In 1239, the Southern Song Emperor Lizong commanded the thirty-fifth Celestial Master Zhang Keda to the united Lingbao School, the Shangqing School and Zhengyi Dao. The new school was to retain the Zhengyi name and remain based at Longhu Shan.

Shortly after the schools were united, Kubilai Khan conquered the Southern Song Dynasty to usher in the Yuan Dynasty. He accepted the claim that the Celestial Master of Longhu Shan was descended from Zhang Daoling and granted the school the right to control affairs relating to Daoism in the Jiangnan area. In 1304, as a result of Zhengyi Dao’s increased importance under the Mongols, all of the Daoist schools, with the exception of the Quanzhen School, were united under the banner of the Zhengyi School, with the thirty-eighth Celestial Master, Zhang Yucai as leader.

Re: The Various Schools of Taoism

帖子发表于 : 12月 29th, 2011, 12:49 pm
Taoist Wang
Quanzhen School (全真派)
According to traditional legend, Wang Chongyang met two Taoist immortals in the summer of 1159 C.E. The immortals, Zhongli Quan and Lü Dongbin taught him Taoist beliefs and trained him in secret rituals. The meeting proved deeply influential, and roughly a year later in 1160 C.E., Wang met one of these men again. In this second encounter, he was provided with a set of five written instructions which led to his decision of living by himself in a grave he created for himself in Zhongnan Mountain for three years.

After seven years of living in the Mountain (three inside the grave and another four in a hut he later called "Complete Perfection Hut"), Wang met two of his seven future disciples, Tan Chuduan and Qiu Chuji. In 1167 C.E., Wang traveled to Shandong Province and met Ma Yu and Ma's wife Sun Bu'er who became his students. These and others would become part of the seven Quanzhen disciples, who were later known as the Seven Masters of Quanzhen.

Ma Yu (馬鈺): Yuxian lineage (Meeting the Immortals, 遇仙派)
Tan Chuduan (譚處端): Nanwu lineage (Southern Void, 南无派)
Liu Chuxuan (劉處玄): Suishan lineage (Mount Sui, 随山派)
Qiu Chuji (丘處機): Longmen lineage (Dragon Gate Taoism, 龙门派)
Wang Chuyi (王處一): Yushan lineage (Mount Yu, 崳山派)
Hao Datong (郝大通): Huashan lineage (Mount Hua, 华山派)
Sun Bu'er (孫不二): Qingjing lineage (Purity and Tranquility Sect, 清静派)

After Wang's departure, it was left to his disciples to continue expounding the Quanzhen beliefs. Ma Yu succeeded Wang as head of the school, while Sun Bu'er went on to establish the Purity and Tranquility School, one of the foremost branches of Quanzhen.

Another notable disciple of Wang was Qiu Chuji who founded the famous White Cloud Monastery in Beijing. Qiu Chuji was the founder of the school called Dragon Gate Taoism (龙门派). Qiu was on good terms with the Mongol monarch Genghis Khan who put him in charge of religious affairs in Mongol-controlled China. As a result, the Quanzhen School of Taoism continued to flourish long after Wang's death, right through to the present.

The Quanzhen school also follow some Buddhist (禅, Chan) ideas and take the heart sutra as an extension or complement to the the Daodejing. Although by empirical edict initially but also independently they absorbed the Buddhist pantheon into its worship and alchemy too. Quanzhen also accepted immortality as a spiritual idea and not as an actual physical ever -lasting life, as was considered by other daoist schools.

Re: The Various Schools of Taoism

帖子发表于 : 12月 29th, 2011, 12:50 pm
Taoist Wang
Wudang Mountain
Wudang Mountain is located in Hubei Province, near Shiyan City. Also known as Taihe Mountain it is one of the most famous Daoist holy mountains in China. The first temples were built in the Tang Dynasty (618-907) but it was in the Ming Dynasty, in honour of Zhenwu (真武) a complete complex of development was undertaken in Wudang which includes many temples and infrastructure. In Yong Le Period of Ming Dynasty (1413) the emperor Zhu Di, ordered the start of the big construction project in Mt. Wudang. Since the third Ming Emperor, Zhu Di, claimed the help of Zhen Wu in his war to take over the Ming Empire, monasteries were built under the Imperial Decree in Wudang Mountains, in China's Hubei Province, where he allegedly attained immortality

Some of the key Schools of Daoism at Wudang Mountain include:

Wudang Quanzhen School (武当全真派)
In 1275, Wang Si Zhen from the Quanzhen school of Daoism came and lodged in Five Dragon temple on Wudang mountain to teach the ideas of the sect and his disciples once reached more than 100.

Wudang Zhengyi School (武当正一道)
In 1304, then famous Taoist Zhang Yu Cai became the headmaster of this school and in fact control the affairs related to Longhu Shan (Dragon and Tiger mountain), Gezhao Shan (Gezhao Mountain) and Mao Shan (Mao Mountain). Zhang Yu Qing, a Daoist from the Zheng Yi sect, acted upon the order and called more than four hundred of Taoists from nearby provinces and brought them to Mt. Wudang. Among them around 20 were assigned with important posts in the many Wudang temples.

Wudang Qingxu School (武当清虚派, Purity and Nothingness)
Zhang Shou Qing whom descended from both the Shangqing and Quanzhen schools of Daoism, stayed in Mt. Wudang for more than 20 years and his disciples reached 4,000 and in middle Yuan Dynasty many Taoists in Purple Heaven Palace and Grand Harmony and other temples were his disciples.

Wudang Sanfeng School (武当三丰派)
In Ming Dynasty the legendary Daoist Zhang San Feng came to settle down at Wudang. Selecting places to construct temples and teaching disciples, Zhang San Feng began to set up San Feng sect who proposed the combination of three teachings (Buddhism, Daoism and Confucianism), cultivation of self for the benefit of the others and esteeming Zhen Wu as the highest God.

Wudang Longmen School (武当龙门派)
In 1669 Wang Chang Yue, successor of the Quanzhen Longmen School, after the establishment of the Qing dynasty journeyed southward with his disciples from Beijing and set up alter to offer his teachings in Yu Xu Temple in Wudang. Since then the Longmen School has became the mainstream of Wudang Daoism and even more popular than Zhengyi school until today.

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